Barnyard Grass, Echinochloa Is One Of The Most Common Crops Originating From Tropical Asia
Barnyard grass, also known as Echinochloa crus-Galli in formal terms, is a type of wild grass from tropical Asia classified as a type of panicum grass, and pioneers first discovered it in the Great Lakes region in 1843. Commonly known as the cockspur, barnyard millet, Japanese millet, or water grass, it occurs throughout Asian and African agricultural areas. It also grows along roadsides, ditches, railway lines, and disturbed areas such as gravel pits and dumps, and it accumulates in riverbanks and shorelines of lakes and ponds.
This grass usually grows to sixty inches in height as a coarse, tufted, and polymorphous annual. Its culms are upright to decumbent, and each one is up to sixty inches tall and thick, branching out from the base. This grass's leaves are flat, glabrous, elongated and about thirty to fifty centimeters long and up to two centimeters broad, appearing greenish or purple. Its spikelets are short and bristly, each about three to four millimeters long, densely arranged on branches, and oval-shaped, and they appear in pale green to dull purple colors. Each plant produces up to about forty thousand seeds. It has long, somewhat spreading papillose cilia at the tips of the internodes and bases of branches in the inflorescence.
Barnyard Grass-Echinochloa Has Many Uses, Most Especially As Livestock Feed, A Substitute For Rice, And An Ingredient In Medicine
The people in southern Hokkaido were the first to domesticate the barnyard grass four thousand and five hundred years ago, using it as a warm-season grass for cattle fodder. Livestock owners feed them green to animals, providing fodder throughout the year. Hay made from this plant lasts up to six years, and this grass helps reclaim saline and alkaline areas. Wild animals such as rabbits, deer, and waterfowl rely on the grass for food, and humans eat some varieties of its grain in times of scarcity or in adulterating fennel. The young shoots serve as vegetables, and the plant extract is an ingredient in remedies for spleen disease.
Many reports claim that it is preventative and tonic, and it serves as a folk remedy in India for carbuncles, hemorrhages, sores, spleen trouble, cancer, and wounds. This plant was one of the most prevalent crops during the Joseon Dynasty in Korea. The Rural Development Administration discovered its ability to lower blood sugar and cholesterol when consumed. A cultivar of this plant is the Japanese barnyard millet, a domesticated form of the barnyard grass cultivated on a small scale in China, Japan, and Korea.
Barnyard Grass-Echinochloa is For Sale at TN Wholesale Nursery with Low Prices and Fast Shipping
Barnyard grass - Echinochloa crus-Galli - is amongst the most easily propagated species in the grass family, requiring little to no work on the grower's part to achieve its desired stature.
It is a warm-season annual weed of turfgrass that grows vertically. Moist, disturbed locations, swamps, and wet turf regions are all suitable places to look for this grass. Among the most distinguishing characteristics of barnyard grass from other grasses are the shape of its seedhead and the absence of a ligule. You must maintain a thick, resilient turf year-round by adequate grooming and fertilization to avoid weed growth and invasion. Because it is a robust grower, it may grow to a length of approximately 1 to 4 feet tall if left unattended.
Its tall, flat, purple-tinged leaves, usually with a distinct vein stretching down the center and its tendency to spread, make it readily identifiable amongst all other kinds of grasses. It becomes much more noticeable when it blooms because it produces a bristly violet seedhead. The stem is flat and upright, and the roots are located at the nodes of the stem. The leaves are tubular, having a broad circular base that narrows at the tip to form a point. The color of the flower head may range from scarlet, purple, pink, or green.
The seed head is formed like a windmill, while the seeds are tiny and have stiff awns. It takes between 42 and 64 days to finish its maturation. This grass is utilized as a source of fodder for cattle, while the young leaves are consumed as vegetables, and humans eat the seeds.
Varieties of Barnyard grass
This grass is available in a wide variety, including a few native and non-native species. Here are the most popular and distinctive types:
Echinochloa muricata- Reaching about 1 to 3 feet high, it is a native warm-season grass. It is a self-seeding annual that favors disturbed places with damp to wet environments and thrives in full sun. It often develops dense colonies in marshes, where it offers refuge and food for various animal species and humans. Ducks and other waterfowl find this plant to be a beneficial natural food source, and it is mainly cultivated to lure them.
Echinochloa walteri- This annual grass has sturdy, upright stems that may reach a height of 5 feet. It also possesses flat, smooth leaves that are simple to manage. The sheaths of this variety of this grass is usually smooth; meanwhile, the sheaths of other species seem to be hairy. The ligules on the leaves of this plant are absent. The bristle-like hairs that protrude from the tips of each spikelet of this variety of barnyard grass make the plant easily noticeable among many other types.
Sun exposure: Full sun to partial shade
Height at maturity: 1 to 4 feet tall
Water requirements: moderate once it gets established
Best time to harvest: mid-summer
Ship as: Bare root